Often considered the best English language novel written (especially in England), George Eliot's Middlemarch is a perfect encapsulation of small town life and the characters that inhabit it (as its subtitle "A Study of Provincial Life" speaks to). Do not let its almost eight hundred page length keep you from picking up Eliot's masterpiece - by its conclusion, all thirty main characters will feel like old neighbors and its incisive, psychologically perceptive narrator your wisest and dearest friend
The old adage for good writing is to show and not tell, and in that regard, The Age of Innocence is an absolute masterpiece. Wharton's characters almost never speak of their emotions yet on every page you feel the ache of their longing and the heartbreak of their decisions. Despite this controlled writing throughout, the final chapter is such a gut shot that you may need to be sitting down to read it. (Also, I strongly suggest Martin Scorsese's underrecognized film adaptation starring Daniel Day-Lewis, Michelle Pfeiffer and featuring Joanne Woodward reading Wharton's prose as the narrator.)
I can't think of a better way to recommend Emily Brontë's Gothic masterpiece than quoting Kate Bush's great song "Wuthering Heights" where she sings as its character Cathy: "Out on the wily, windy moors/We'd roll and fall in green/You had a temper like my jealousy/Too hot, too greedy/How could you leave me/When I needed to possess you?/ I hated you, I loved you too. Bad dreams in the night/They told me I was going to lose the fight/Leave behind my wuthering, wuthering, Wuthering Heights." (Definitely add this song to your playlist if you have just discovered Bush because of Stranger Things.)
If you have read Jane Eyre and were left wanting to know more about Bertha then you must read Jean Rhys' Wide Sargasso Sea. However, Rhys' novel is so much more than a prequel to Brontë's Gothic classic. Rhys (a Dominican-British author) sets the first part of her story in Jamaica after Britain has abolished slavery allowing her to weave postcolonialism and slavery into her feminist take on how Antoinette became Bertha. Rhys' story will cause you to totally rethink the actions of Bertha in Brontë's and make you see Rochester (and his relationship with Jane Eyre) in a completely different light. I hope that Wide Sargasso Sea is just an introduction to Rhys' work and encourage you to read more of her work like her four Paris novels.
Kazuo Ishiguro is the master of the slow burn and Never Let Me Go may have the most shocking revelation of any of his novels - it is so well crafted that you almost cannot tell exactly when he first revealed it. You will live so completely in Ishiguro's characters' world and voice that you, just as they, will fully accept the reality before you.
Quickly working its way up through the literary canon and into conversations about not just the great American novels but the greatest is John Williams' Stoner. William Stoner is a quiet and unassuming professor but his prosaic ups-and-downs, minor regrets and Quixotic battles with his dean are all rendered in a way that feels both universal and deeply American. Considered a perfect novel by some, in its couple hundred pages, you will feel like you have lived a full but unfulfilled lifetime.
Everyone's Awake is the perfect anti-bedtime book to add to your family's bedtime reading. In this Wes Anderson-esque lighthouse-mansion on its own island, the young narrator is restless due to his large family's nighttime shenanigans - personal faves include "My brother's staged a coup d'etat and overthrown the state while my sister's joined the resistance (they never got on great)" and "The cat is giving poke tattoos while prank calling the cops." Meloy, of the band The Decemberists, has written musical text that builds in action and absurdity and it is one of those books (like a great Pixar movie) that is just as fun for the parents as it is for the kids.