Modern science and technology, from materials science to integrated circuit development, is directed toward the nanoscale. This book focuses on the fundamental physics underlying the techniques used to analyze the nature of surfaces and near-surfaces in the properties of materials. From thin films to field effect transistors, the emphasis is on reducing dimensions from the micro to the nanoscale. Coverage includes new analytical techniques, such as x-ray fluorescence (XRF) in thin film analysis. This volume updates (with a nano focus) the well regarded 1986 book, Surface and Thin Film Analysis, by Feldman and Mayer.